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Glenodinium foliaceum CCAP 1116/3


Principle Investigator(s) Patrick Keeling
External sample IDGlenodinium foliaceum Dark (Gf Dark)
NCGR Sample IDMMETSP0119_2
Sample accession numberCAM_SMPL_002401
Assembly accession numberCAM_ASM_000219
Combined Assembly NameGlenodinium-foliaceum-CCAP1116_3
StrainCCAP 1116/3
Prelim. NCBI Taxon ID160619
18S rRNA
Importance of organism and transcriptomesGlenodinium foliaceum is a marine dinoflagellate, which is very related to the bloom-forming ubiquitous dinoflagellate Kryptoperidinium foliaceum. These organisms belong to a small group of dinoflagellates that are of particular interest to cell and evolutionary biology because they have lost photosynthesis in their ancestral plastid and replaced this activity with a diatom endosymbiont (a so-called tertiary plastid). The endosymbiosis is at a relatively early stage of integration, so the diatom retains a large nucleus and nuclear genome, many plastids, a large proportion of cytoplasm and, uniquely among all such symbioses, its own mitochondria. Altogether this means these single cells contain five or perhaps six genome containing compartments: two nuclei, two mitochondria, and one or two plastids (the fate of the original dinoflagellate plastid is as yet uncertain). The binucleate nature of these dinoflagellate/diatom consortia (called ?dinotoms?) also presents a unique opportunity to study the contribution of each nucleus to the control, function, and maintenance of the plastids (all of which are within the diatom endosymbiont), and mitochondria (which are found in the cytosol of both dinoflagellate and diatom), initially through identifying the nuclear-encoded transcripts for organelle-targeted proteins so as to assemble a complete list of organelle functions in the two eukaryotes. We propose two transcriptomic surveys (light conditions and dark conditions) from all three dinotoms that are available in public culture collections, to best identify the broadest possible range of genes in these complex biological systems.
Additional citations and references
Environmental Data
Primary citation for organism's characterization, if availableFigueroa RI, Bravo I, Fraga S, Garces E, Llaveria G (2009) The life history and cell cycle of Kryptoperidinium foliaceum, A dinoflagellate with two eukaryotic nuclei. Protist 160: 285?300.; Kempton, J. W., Wolny, J., Tengs, T. et al. 2002. Kryptoperidinium foliaceum blooms in South Carolina: a multianalytical approach to identification. Harmful Algae 1: 383?92.; Dodge JD (1971) A dinoflagellate with both a mesokaryotic and a eukaryotic nucleus: Part 1 fine structure of the nuclei. Protoplasma 73: 145?157. 31.
Collection date01-JAN-80
Sample collection siteYork River, Chesapeake Bay,
Other collection site infoestuary, brakish water
Sample material (e.g. "seawater," "sediment," etc.)Seawater
Volume filtered (L)2
ENVO term for habitat - primary termAcquatic: marine
ENVO term for habitat - secondary termOther
Habitatmarine habitat
Experimental Data
Date of experiment26-FEB-11
Growth mediumF/2-Si amended sea water
Modifications to growth medium48 hours before harvest antibiotics were added to medium: 500 mg/L penicillin; 200 mg/L ampicillin; 100 mg/L streptomycin; 100 mg/L neomycin
Temperature (ºC)22
Salinty (psu)21
Night portion of day:night cycle in hours48
Nitrate (μmol/L)882
Phosphate (μmol/L)36.2
Trace elements (total) (nmol/L)23000
Investigation typeEukaryotes